Useful to pay attention
If you are a passionate cyclist, you will certainly have to face the need to install or adjust the front gearshift on the bike. You may need this for a number of reasons. For example, you will need to replace the switching system or the cable will stretch. We will tell you about the correct implementation of this procedure in this guide.
The design of such a system is quite simple. We list the main components and their functional features.
An element designed to attach the device to the frame of your bike.
An element in the construction of which there are hinges and a special spring. This element got its name because of the shape of the parallelogram. It represents the main moving part of the device, and also a frame is attached to it, about which a few words below.
A part in which both the external and internal parts play an important role. A chain runs along the inside of this element.
And these elements are also called limiters. These are two bolts that are used to limit the movement of the frame both towards the bicycle frame and in the opposite direction.
Another bolt that holds the gearshift cable.
First of all, you need to understand the principle of operation of this device if you want to understand how to configure the front derailleur. The function of this device is to transfer the bike chain to the required star. When the gear changes from a larger star to a smaller star, the cable tension decreases, as a result of which the spring pulls the parallelogram along with the guide frame towards the frame of your vehicle. The frame exerts pressure on the chain with its outer side, and it goes over to an asterisk of a smaller diameter. The reverse process is performed in the same way. Stretching, the cable moves the parallelogram with the frame in the opposite direction. The frame presses on the chain and throws it onto a large star.
As you can see, a well-tuned switch is a simple and reliable device. The correct setting of the limiters is of great importance, since the parallelogram abuts against them, reaching extreme positions. If the position of the stops is not set correctly, the chain will constantly jump from the right place.
If you have to install a new switch, or if you are preparing to configure an already installed system, before proceeding with the steps, you need to check a number of parameters.
Inspect the system and check for any backlash or damage. It happens that after prolonged use on some parts, for example, a guide frame or parallelogram, gaps form. And also parts, especially the frame, can get damaged and bent from loads and falls. Because of this, you may have trouble setting up your bike’s front derailleur.
Be sure to thoroughly clean all elements of the device from dust and other contaminants, then apply grease. First of all, it is necessary to lubricate all moving parts of the device, namely the springs and the parallelogram itself. If necessary, you can remove the shift system from the frame of your vehicle. These actions will also contribute to a better visual inspection, which was discussed in the previous paragraph.
And it is also necessary to clean the switch cable and check its integrity. If the cable is very dirty, you can detach it from the fixing bolt and pull it out, but you can also clean it without removing it. After that, inspect the cable for broken wires. Then, if everything is in order, the cable must also be lubricated.
- Check the rear derailleur.
It is required that the rear derailleur is already configured, as it is used as the master during tuning.
Getting started with installation and configuration
After all the initial events, it’s time to figure out how to set up the front gearshift on a bicycle.
- First you need to perform the correct positioning of the device. The correct position is as follows: the longitudinal axis of the guide frame should be parallel to the front sprockets. The distance from the bottom of the frame to the largest star should not be more than 2 mm, nor should it cling to the teeth. During alignment, the parallelogram bends from the frame toward the largest star. Performing positioning will be easier with the chain removed. Many branded switches have a special sticker with level labels that simplify installation.
- A little twist the bolt that fixes the clamp, and once again check the location of the guide frame. If everything is in order, tighten the bolt to the end.
- We completed the installation, now we have to configure the front gearshift on a bicycle. The easiest way to tune the bike is with the rear wheel raised. To achieve this, the vehicle can be suspended by hooking it on the saddle, or fixed in another way.
- Let’s start by setting the slowest speed. Keep in mind that the cable must be free. We carry out the adjustment of the cable tension, twisting it all the way, then return it a few turns back. Often the adjustment is tightened to the end, but fine adjustment requires a small margin of tension.
- We also set the lowest speed on the rear derailleur. It is necessary that you have the first speed set both in front and behind.
- We set the position of the limit bolt L at which the inner part of the guide frame is located as close to the chain as possible, but does not catch it when the pedals are rotated. If you want the frame to move toward the frame of the bike, rotate the stop counterclockwise and vice versa.
- Reinstall the cable, then tighten the fixing bolt. Twist by hands, no need to use pliers.
- Now shift the gears to a position where the front chain will be mounted on the largest star and the rear on the smallest one. Adjust the second limit screw H. Now you need to ensure that the outer part of the guide frame is as close to the chain as possible, but does not cling to it during movement. To move the frame toward the bicycle frame, rotate the stopper clockwise and vice versa.
- Now we have to adjust the front bicycle speed switch. Set the rear derailleur to fifth speed. Then, turning the pedals, change the speeds of the front derailleur over the entire range (3. 2. 1. 2. 3). Repeat the procedure two to three times, after which set the second speed ahead and start shifting reverse gears. It is necessary to ensure that the chain does not rub against the guide frame in the following positions: 2. 2 and 2. 7. If friction is present, it is necessary to additionally adjust the cable tension. If there are problems with the transition from a larger star to a smaller one, it is necessary to reduce the tension, and if difficulties arise when switching from a smaller star to a larger one, it is necessary to strengthen it.
Testing the work done
When the installation of the front derailleur on the bike is complete, you can begin testing. Choose a straight section of the road that does not have sharp descents and ascents, and test the operation of the device while riding. If you find any problems with the functionality, you can perform the adjustment on the go at low speed. A little skill and you will learn how to easily configure the front gearshift on your bike.
Last week, I published instructions on how to set up the rear derailleur, and so today we will talk about the front derailleur. The front clutch is generally a bad thing, because it is very difficult to adjust so that it does not rub on the chain in extreme gears.
In addition, the front gearshift has a very unpleasant feature. difficult work under load, if in time I did not understand that there are not enough gears on the cassette to drive uphill, then it may not be possible to lower the gear in front.
Many cyclists know first hand what a snack chain is. This is a disgusting phenomenon when, when shifting under load to the lowest gear, the chain flies and wedges between a small star and the tube of the carriage assembly. Unfortunately, sometimes this can happen even on a well-tuned switch.
If for an ordinary katalets this is just an extra mess, then for a cyclist the consequences of such an incident can be the most sad. with your bare hands it is not always possible to pull the chain out of the trap. Such deadly jamming rarely occurs, but still, while you pull out the chain, you will suffer a lot and get smeared in dirt and grease.
Perhaps those who are aware of the latest cycling know that the current trend in the mechanics of mountain bikes is the refusal to shift gears in front stars. In fact, the front derailleur is an atavism that allows you to "get" the extreme gears relative to the middle star.
New mechanical systems include one universal chainring with 32 to 36 teeth and an 11-speed cassette with a range of 10-42. Maybe this scheme limits the bike a little in terms of maximum speed, but speeds of 35 km / h for a mountain bike are not so relevant.
So far, such experiments with the transmission are carried out only in the top racing groups of bicycle mechanics, but sooner or later this scheme will come in the middle segment. I see only one minus. the rapid wear of the cartridge and chain due to the fact that the metal of each individual star becomes thinner with an increase in the number of speeds.
With great pleasure I would refuse the front derailleur, because in my opinion, today it looks like a forced crutch.
Adjustment, front derailleur adjustment, it’s not difficult if you do everything carefully and consistently, but first you need to configure the rear derailleur, and then proceed to the front.
The whole process can be divided into three stages:
To configure, we need:
1) A figured screwdriver;
4) The key is 9 (in some cases you need a hexagon 4-5);
5) Cable and cable shirt (if your in poor condition);
The first stage is preparation.
First, check the cable and the cable jacket (to do this, loosen the tension cable and remove it from the shirt), make sure that the cable is not unfastened anywhere, the cable jacket is not “creased”. If there are no creases and braids, and the cable still moves tightly in the shirt, clean it from dirt, sand and grease.
Next, wash and clean the front derailleur, wipe it well and dry it, and then grease all moving parts.
Twist the “lamb”, which is located on the gearshift coins, almost to the very end (leave a couple of turns for adjustment). At this stage, the preparation is completed.
The second step is to configure the front derailleur.
Set the switch so that if you looked at it from above, the switch frame was parallel to the front sprockets. (to adjust the height and angle of the switch, loosen the clamp bolt)
In order to adjust the height, set the chain to a large star, the gap between the frame and the big star should be 2-3 mm. The smaller the gap, the better the switch.
Next, you should adjust the “blockage of the chain” (so that the chain does not fall when switching to lower and higher gears)
If you look at the switch from above, you can see two adjusting screws H.High (high) and L.Low (low) on it. these screws are responsible for adjusting the “chain block”.
Install the chain on the small sprocket in front and on the large asterisk
We begin to turn the L.Low screw (low) until the chain is as close to the inner plate as possible, but make sure that the chain does not touch the frame when pedaling. Next, tighten the cable with pliers and tighten the screw securing the cable.
Now you need to do the same with the H.High screw (high). We put the chain on a large star in front and on a small back one. Turn the screw H (High) until the chain is as close as possible to the outer plate, but so that when pedaling the chain does not touch the frame.
Now you need to check how the switch works by turning the pedals (put the bike on a stand or suspend the rear wheel), shift gears in both directions step by step. If it switches poorly from large stars to small stars, it is necessary to loosen the cable by rotating the “lamb” on the coins clockwise, and if it does not rise well from small to large stars, counterclockwise.
The third step is to check the front derailleur.
After we checked the operation of the switch on weight, you need to do it under load, sit on a bicycle and drive through, changing gears. The front derailleur should work smoothly and clearly, the chain should not rub against the frame.
What could be the problems when setting the front derailleur?
1) Incompatibility of the front derailleur and system.
It happens that when replacing or installing a new switch, you have the wrong switch. In general, they are of three types: with the upper cable pull, with the lower cable pull and universal, as well as each switch is designed for a specific system and number of teeth. Therefore, when buying a switch, look at what you had, and if you do not know, take it with you for a sample.
2) I can’t adjust the front switch, the chain rubs against the frame all the time
Firstly, check the parallelism of the switch installation, if everything is ok, check the system if it is bent, the stars are level, make a couple of turns of the pedals and look at them, the stars should not change the rotation axis.
3) The friction of the chain on the switch frame when it is at a speed of 3-1.
Do not forget about the concept of “chain skew” in the position when the chain is located diagonally, it is not recommended to drive. this can lead to a chain stretching and breakage of the front switch.
Also, when shifting gears, remember to release the pressure on the pedals.
If you can’t set up the front derailleur yourself, please contact us, our bicycle workshop will be happy to help you.
Video on how to configure the front derailleur:
So thanks this article you already know how to configure the rear derailleur, now let’s figure out the front derailleur.
And as always, you don’t need to be afraid to configure your switch yourself. You will hardly break or damage something if you do not do it on purpose and with excessive force
- Determine the type of switch
- Adjust the switch position
- Adjust the clearance
- Precise fit
The principle of operation of the front switch is the same as the rear one, you pull the cable with a sprocket, and the cable biases the switch. You release the cable with the handle, the spring returns the switch.
Determine the type of switch
But first, you need to determine the type of attachment of the switch to the frame. The following picture will help you with the XTR switch FD-M985 and FD-M985-E:
As you can see, there are 2 types of switches:
First type attached to the seatpost of the frame with a special clamp. The switch can rotate around the pipe and move up and down on it, which requires additional accuracy during installation.
Second type attached to the frame. Such a switch moves up and down a bit, which allows you to precisely adjust the height. And it is always in the plane of the stars, which avoids unnecessary trouble with the setting.
If your frame does not have a mount for such a switch, then you can purchase a special adapter (figure 6 in the photo), which in turn is clamped between the carriage and the carriage glass of the bicycle. Do not forget to place such an adapter parallel to the seat tube of the frame.
Today we will consider the first type of switch, since it is the most demanding in configuration. The second type is configured in the same way, except for setting the switch on the same plane with the stars.
Step 1: Switch to the largest star in the back and the smallest star in the front.
Step 2: Fully screw in the cable preload adjustment bolt on the lever.
Step 3: Loosen the switch clamp bolt so that it can rotate freely around the frame seatpost. Adjust the angle of the switch so that its frames are parallel to the small connecting rod star.
Step 4: Now adjust switch height. Shift the gear to the largest chainring (if you cannot switch because the switch rests and does not want to go higher, then see Step 8) Different manufacturers recommend a height of 1 to 3 millimeters between the top of the tooth of a large star and the edge of the outer frame. If you do not want to bathe with measurements, then you can set the gap with an ordinary coin. Insert the coin so that it is sandwiched between the large star and the edge of the outer frame. Tighten a bolt of a collar of the switch.
Step 5: Go back to the smallest star in front and the largest one in the back. Loosen the bolt that secures the switch cable. With a screwdriver and a boltL" set the minimum clearance between the inner edge of the frame and the chain. By rotating the bolt clockwise, you decrease the clearance by rotating it against the increase.
Step 6: Make 1 turn of the cable preload adjustment bolt on the shifter.
Step 7: Tighten the cable itself slightly and secure it with a bolt. In this case, the switch should not shift towards the larger star.
Step 8: Shift gear to the largest star in the front and the smallest one in the back. If you are unable to switch because the switch rests and does not want to go higher, then use the bolt marked "H»And twist it until the chain jumps to a large star.
Step 9: Set the minimum clearance between the outside of the frame and the chain. so that the chain almost touches the outer frame, but does not touch it. Rotating the boltH”Clockwise, you decrease the clearance by rotating against increase.
Video: Change Chainsaw Tire From Bigger To Lesser
Step 10: Rotate the pedals while switching speeds on the front chainring using the up-down gear. If the chain does not move well from a large star to a small star, then loosen the cable by turning the cable preload adjustment bolt on the cable from Step 2 clockwise. If the chain is poorly throws on a large star, then it is worth pulling the cable by rotating the preload adjustment bolt counterclockwise. Get optimal performance. Profit!
Manufacturers allowed a slight wiping of the switch frames in extreme positions with strong distortions of the chain. These are positions when the chain is on a small star in front and a small star in the back or a large star in front and a large one in the back. But it is better to try to avoid wiping with fine tuning.
Adjusting the front derailleur is not such a difficult task, using the recommendations in the article you can adjust the derailleur yourself.
The principle of the front derailleur
The switch itself is a frame that moves the chain, transferring it from one star to another. It is attached to the frame of the bicycle and is adjusted using a cable that is connected to the adjustment handle on the handlebar. The front derailleur experiences a greater load than the rear derailleur; therefore, its incorrect setting affects the operation of the derailleur at the rear.
What happens if the adjustment is wrong?
Before sorting out the problems resulting from improper adjustment, we note the operation of the adjusted front derailleur: it should smoothly move the chain along the links, nothing should interfere with the rotation of the chain itself, it should not rub against the holder, the delay between switching should be minimal.
Incorrect settings can cause the following malfunctions and breakdowns:
- An unadjusted mechanism can lead to chain wear. A worn chain begins to slip between the links of the star, which spoils the state of the star. This entails a complete replacement of the chain and stars.
- Incorrect adjustment can lead to deformation of the jacket of the cable, which unwinds its winding. As a result, the course of the cable ceases to be free, which complicates the inclusion of speeds.
- Damage to the cable itself is possible. It may break or the fixing bolt may be loose. This will lead to a sharp shutdown.
- Also, the skew of the chain leads to rapid wear of it and the stars.
Installing the front derailleur on the frame
To adjust the switching mechanism, you must correctly set the position of the switch on the frame.
The following rules apply to the correct provision:
- The mechanism should be located above the extreme star by 2 mm.
- It is parallel to the stars.
- The cable clamp screw is loose.
- The cable cover is loose, i.e. not stretched
- The angle of the transfer mechanism should correspond to the angle of inclination of the midline of the frame.
To configure, you will need the following tools:
- A set of hexagons;
- Screwdriver (type depends on the type of factory screws);
- The usual coin is small in size.
The adjustment itself can be divided into several sub-items:
- When to customize.
- Step-by-step setup instructions.
When can I customize?
Set the switch in case of some deviations from normal operation:
- Throwing a chain is difficult or delayed;
- No switching at all;
- The switching mechanism is damaged or has a deformation of the housing;
- The spring in the mechanism has worn out or the cable connecting the mechanism and the handle; speed control, sprawled or torn.
The configuration process can be described in several steps:
- We turn the adjusting screw L. It is necessary to set its position so that the case of the mechanism has a chain at a minimum distance from its inner surface. It is important not to exaggerate and not to bring the chain to touch the frame. So we set the upper bound.
- Next, you need to fix the drive cable. To do this, tighten it and tighten the fixing screw. In the case where the mount has an additional washer with a recess, fasten the cable into this groove.
- After the work done, we transfer the chain to the star behind the smallest size and in front to the largest. We begin to adjust the lower border of the switch. To do this, using the same L screw, we adjust the distance between the already outer boundary of the chain and the mechanism housing. In both cases of border adjustment, a distance of 1-2 mm is recommended.
- It is important to check operation under load. Chain travel should be free, without touching the frame. Chain toss should be clear and fast. In this case, the setting can be considered correct.
Tips for setting the front derailleur
Tuning tips can be classified into several groups that overlook problems with different parts of the switching mechanism:
- Initial preparation;
- Switch position;
- Verification of work;
- Cable installation;
- General care tips.
Before adjusting, it is important to wash and lubricate the chain and the moving parts of the mechanism. For this, one drop of lubricant is sufficient. Cleaning the dirt of the cable and its exit jacket is important. A worn cable needs to be replaced. The standard tuning position is a large star in the back and a small one in the front.
In addition to touching the chain on the frame, it is important to monitor its tension. She should not sag.
To adjust the cable, you need to adjust the tension on the drum of the cuff. To do this, scroll it clockwise. Leaving two or three turns all the way, loosen the cable fixing screw. Often a malfunction in the work causes excessive friction of the cable, so you need to examine all the joints and the entire cable where it goes along the frame.
Troubleshooting after setup
If after configuration there are problems in some cases, proceed as follows:
- If the chain scrolls while riding, then it must be changed, since it has stretched and worn out.
- If the switch is too tight, then you need to weaken the course of the cable, check for kinks.
- If the chain began to touch the frame of the mechanism, then you need to re-adjust the lower or upper boundary of the mechanism, that is, the position of the external and internal parts of the chain relative to the frame.
- If adjusting the borders of the frame does not help, then you can adjust it in detail on the shift control handle near the brake with the screw.
The following tips will help you avoid frequent adjustments and keep parts from quick wear:
- Use low gears at the start, as the best efforts are made during the start. To facilitate this process, use the lowest gear in the drivetrain.
- Change speeds gradually, without sudden changes to several gears at once.
- Before climbing, the gear should be underestimated in advance, and not in movement along the mountain itself.
- Switch the speeds only in motion, since in the standing position the chain tension is minimal, which can lead to breakage at the beginning of the movement.
- After shifting the chain, the pedal pressure should be reduced for a few seconds so that the chain fully enters the transmission without slipping.
How does this switch work?
This is not a Tiptronic automatic transmission, and the switch works very simply. If we discard all conventions, then this is just a steel frame suspended on a bicycle frame, which is able to move left and right. Moving, she pushes the bicycle chain and makes it move from one sprocket to another. It is set in motion by a cable, which is connected to the steering wheel shifter.
Everything seems to be simple, but not as it seems. The front speed switch has to work with the busiest, upper part of the chain, which transfers force to the rear sprockets and is constantly in tension. Therefore, if the switch is not configured correctly, changing the gear will not be easy even with the ideal rear shift settings.
In order for the entire adjustment to become clear and understandable, imagine that we install it on the bare frame of a bicycle. Settings from scratch, a kind of.
Installing the front derailleur on the frame
To determine if the flip is installed correctly on the frame, we need to make sure that:
- the switch frame is 2 mm higher than the teeth of the largest chainring;
- the frame should be strictly parallel to the block of leading stars;
- the front bicycle switch is washed, all dirt and dust are removed, it is lubricated and all adjusting screws rotate freely;
- the chain is on the largest star in the back and on the smallest star in the front;
- drive cable clamp screw loosened;
- the cable cover is loose (in a loose, loose state);
- angle of the front flip. the middle line should be parallel to the center line of the frame.
Below we placed a drawing in which we tried to demonstrate the initial positions of the entire structure before setting up.
A little advice. the lower the front derailleur is lowered, the more accurate it will be.
And here a question arises, the solution of which we will not be able to influence without replacing the transfer. If the radius of the star is larger than that for which the switch is designed, then the back of the frame will cling to the teeth of the big star. But sometimes it can be cured by subtle adjustments, which we will talk about later. In the meantime, everything is ready and the front derailleur setting is waiting for us.
By rotating the screw 1, we ensure that the frame is at a minimum distance from the chain from the side of the carriage. Make sure that the chain does not touch the frame.
We fasten the cable to the gearshift drive. Slightly pulling it, fix it with a screw or nut. If there is a gasket washer with a groove, lay the cable in it and clamp it.
We transfer the chain to the smallest sprocket in the back and to the largest in the front. By turning screw 2, we achieve the minimum distance between the chain and the frame, but without contact.
Check the operation of the switch under load. If the chain moves freely around all the stars and does not touch the frame when driving, we can consider the setting complete. Congratulations.
But you will never be able to adjust so that the chain does not rub against the frame with the front highest and the rear lowest, and vice versa. It is necessary to strive for this, but not everyone succeeds. Therefore, if you want to achieve academic heights in setting up the front flip, then only practice will help in this.
Sometimes the fault of the rattle of the frame on the chain may be increased wear of the overload. It is simple to check. if the frame has a backlash, it is better to change the speed switch to a new one. Repairing it is not worth the time you spend, and the new one is not that expensive, and there will be a guarantee that it goes through more than one season.
But in any case, no matter how carefully you set up the front shift, it will not save you from rattle of the chain on the frame if you change gears incorrectly. Without going into subtleties, remember the most important thing. you do not need to switch speeds while loading the pedals. Those. for a second, stop pressing the pedals, switch the speed and smoothly (without undue pressure) make a few turns with the pedals. When you still do not understand that the chain has switched to the desired star, you can continue the usual pedaling. over, the cheaper the system on your bike, the stricter it is to comply with this rule.
In general, the settings described above are quite enough for convenient and trouble-free operation of the front speed switch.
The front derailleur on the bicycle is a strip of steel fixed to the bicycle frame and has free play, both to the right and to the left. Moving to one of the sides, he transfers the chain to another sprocket (smaller or larger in size).
The mechanism is driven by a steel cable, which is connected to the steering wheel shifter.
How to install?
The installation of the front gearshift on a bicycle is carried out in accordance with several points.
- The bike is mounted on a special stand to make it easier to handle.
- Before installation, the mechanism must be thoroughly washed, and all friction parts must be lubricated with high quality.
- The bicycle chain must be secured to the largest sprocket in the rear and to the smallest in the front.
- Loosen cable adjusting screw.
- Slide the switch collar onto the seatpost.
- Install the steel cable on the switch and pull it.
- Check the position of the steel frame during sequential gear changes. If there is a skew or the distance between the frame and the stars is too large (small), then the mechanism must be removed and re-secured to the seatpost.
- Tighten the fastening screw.
Just like the installation, the front derailleur is replaced by a bicycle.
Setting the front derailleur on the bike is done after the mechanism has been reinstalled or replaced. This may require a specific tool (a curly screwdriver and wrenches with a minimum pitch).
- Align the mechanism so that the drive star is parallel to the central longitudinal axis of the flip frame.
- By turning the low gear limiter screw, which is located closer to the seat tube, it is necessary to achieve a minimum clearance between the frame itself and the bicycle chain.
- Lock the steel cable of the speed selector. To do this, it must be tensioned and secured with a nut or screw.
- In order to adjust the front bicycle speed switch correctly, the bicycle chain must be fixed on the smallest sprocket on the back and on the largest front. After that, with the help of the high gear limiter screw on the switch frame, it is necessary to achieve a minimum clearance between the bicycle chain and the frame itself. However, they should not be in contact.
- It remains only to check the operation of the device during the ride, having previously installed the pedals in place, if you decided to remove them during the repair. The setting of the bicycle front derailleur is considered correct if the chain does not touch the steel derailleur during the ride. If necessary, it can be shortened.
From the above instructions, you can understand how to configure the front gearshift on a bicycle with your own hands. But you should know that the correct setup does not always work the first time. Sometimes only practice will help to achieve the desired result and, perhaps, the process will have to be repeated several times. But you need to do everything so as not to overdo it, because otherwise you will need to repair the front speed switch.
Design and principle of operation of the front flip
The design of the front derailleur is very simple. All its components, as well as their purpose, we will consider below.
- Clamp. With this part, the front derailleur is mounted on the bicycle frame.
- Parallelogram. Parallelogram spring-loaded hinged part. It is the main moving part of the front flange, to which the frame is attached.
- Guide frame, which has an outer and inner part. A chain runs inside her.
- Adjusting bolts L and H (stops). There are two of them. They limit the movement of the guide frame towards the frame (L) and away from it (H).
- Cable fixing bolt. Locks the gear shift cable.
The principle of operation is based on a simple collision of the chain on the desired star. When the gear changes from a larger (in diameter) star to a smaller star, the cable tension is weakened, and the switch spring pulls the parallelogram with the guide frame a certain distance towards the frame. The outer side of the frame presses on the chain, forcing it to jump to a smaller sprocket. When switching from a smaller star to a larger one, the reverse process occurs. The switch cable is pulled and moves the parallelogram and the guide frame away from the frame. The inner part of the frame presses on the chain, and due to the special shape of the frame itself, as well as special hooks on the sprockets of the front system, the chain is hooked and thrown onto a large star.
In this design, restrictive bolts (L and H) are provided, in which the parallelogram rests upon reaching the extreme positions. If the setting of the front derailleur stops is not correct, the chain will jump to the carriage or connecting rod.
What to do before setting the front derailleur
- Check if the flip fits under the front star system. If you cannot adjust for a long time or install a new front derailleur, then check this item. There are three main parameters (except for the direction of cable feed, etc.) that may not be suitable for the normal operation of the switch. This is the maximum number of teeth of the largest star, the maximum difference between the teeth of the smallest and largest stars and the minimum difference between the teeth of the medium and large stars. These parameters can be found in the instructions for the speed switch. There are also switches for three front stars and two, plus everything may not correspond to the system. The topic of how to choose the front derailleur will be discussed in more detail in another article. Below we give a picture with the parameters of the transfer Shimano Alivio FD — M430 / 431 for example.
- Check for play and visually inspect for damage.. It happens that during a fall, as well as with prolonged use, backlashes of the frame, parallelogram and other parts of the switch are formed. Plus, the frame itself may bend. This results in a fuzzy gear shift and causes tuning problems. Fine tuning is not possible without eliminating backlash. The best option would be to buy a new switch.
- Clean the switch of dirt and re-grease it. Before you begin to adjust and adjust the front flange, thoroughly clean all its parts from dirt and re-lubricate. These are primarily springs, as well as movable parallelogram joints. To do this, you can remove it from the frame of the bicycle. Please note that in this case you will have to re-configure the correct position of the switch relative to the stars of the system.
- Clean and lubricate the front derailleur cables and check their integrity. We disconnect the cable from the fixing bolt on the switch and get it through the steering wheel control (this is not necessary, you can clean and lubricate the cable without removing it). We examine for a gap in the veins. If everything is normal, then we clean the cable from dirt and lubricate (if damage is observed, then the cable should be replaced with a new one). Then we insert it into the cup and thread through the shirts. We do not fasten it back to the switch, this will be done during the setup of the transfer. If, when biting off the end piece, for example, with pliers, the end of the cable swells, then it is unlikely to be inserted back into the cup. In order to do this, solder the tip of the cable with tin. To simplify this procedure, dip it into soldering acid and solder. Do not solder too much tin, as this will prevent the cable from being threaded into the hole on the shifter; it is enough to cover it with a thin layer.
- Clean and grease the bike chain. In order to learn how to clean and lubricate the circuit, follow the link.
- It is advisable to have a tuned rear derailleur. This is not necessary, but in this case you will have to manually rearrange the chain to the desired stars of the rear cassette when setting up the front flip. In general, it’s easier to first set up the rear bike speed switch and then move on to the front.
Adjustment and tuning of the front bicycle speed switch
After you have completed all the preparatory measures, you can begin to adjust and configure. If you install a new switch or remove it during the cleaning process, then before setting it up, you should position it relative to the front stars, and then proceed with the adjustment.
Correct installation of the front derailleur
The correct position of the front derailleur is considered such that the longitudinal axis of its guide frame is parallel to the front stars, and the distance from the bottom of its outer part to the largest star is no more than 2 mm. To make it easier to set the correct throwing position, it is advisable to remove the chain.
We set the distance from the bottom of the outer part of the frame to the largest star by moving the flip along the vertical tube of the bicycle frame. We bend the parallelogram of the switch from the frame towards the largest star, and, aligning the frame and the big star relative to each other, we try to achieve the minimum distance (no more than 2 mm) at which its outer part does not touch the teeth. To simplify this procedure, you can insert some object between the frame and the parallelogram.
If you bought a new speed switch from Shimano, then this procedure is simplified by the fact that there is a plastic sticker with labels on the transfer frame that indicates at what level it should be installed relative to the large star of the system.
After we have determined the height at which the switch clamp will be fixed, make a mark with a marker and slightly tighten the clamp bolt.
To adjust the position of the axis of the frame relative to the star system, weaken the clamp bolt (the cable should be tilted at the same time) and, turning the switch, adjust it so that the frame is parallel to the front sprockets. Due to the complex geometry of the latter, it is quite difficult to determine by eye. You can be guided by a parallelogram (if the design allows it). To simplify this operation, you can stick a ruler (on double-sided tape) or another object on the switch frame, which will simplify the positioning of the flip.
After that, slightly tighten the clamp bolt and re-check the distance from the lower edge of the frame to the largest star of the system, and the parallelism of the longitudinal axis relative to the front stars.
If everything is normal, then fully tighten the clamp bolt.
This completes the adjustment of the front speed switch. Now you can put on the chain and proceed with the setup.
Speed Switch Setting
In order not to keep the bike on weight while setting up, try hanging it on the saddle, thereby lifting the rear wheel. You can also use an ironing board. We lay the bike with the top tube of the frame on the ironing board plate, threading it into a triangle.
Setting the front derailleur is quite simple. We will write it in paragraphs for clarity.
- We set the lowest speed using the switch on the steering wheel (remember that at this stage the cable should not be fixed to the toggle). We twist on the shifter the adjustment of the tension of the gear shift cable fully clockwise (if you look at the entrance of the shirt to the shifter) and return it back by 1-2 revolutions. Many recommend spinning completely, but as practice shows, for further fine-tuning, it is better to leave a margin of tension / weakening of the cable in both directions.
- On the rear derailleur, set the lowest speed (the largest sprocket). As a result, you will get the first speed in front and behind (the chain should be on these stars).
- We adjust the switch limiter “L” so that the inside of the frame is as close to the chain as possible, but does not touch it when the pedals are rotated. To do this, if you need to move the frame to the side of the bicycle frame, rotate the bolt L counterclockwise, from the frame. clockwise.
- We insert the cable into the place of fixation on the gear selector and, pulling it (with your hands, do not use pliers), we twist the cable fastening bolt.
- We shift gears in front to the largest star, and back to the smallest one (the chain should be on these stars).
- Configure the limiter "H". It is necessary to achieve such a position of the guide frame, in which its outer part is as close as possible to the chain, but does not rub against it when the pedals rotate. To shift the frame towards the frame, turn the screw clockwise, in the opposite direction, counterclockwise.
- We set the 5th speed on the rear flip. After that, turning the pedals, we change the speeds with the front switch over the entire range (3. 2. 1. 2. 3) several times. Then set speed 2 to the front and, while shifting reverse gears, check that there is no chain friction on the frame at positions 2–2 and 2–7 (example for 24 speed bicycles). On more expensive models of the front derailleurs, you can achieve a lack of friction even on 2. 1 and 2. 8 (although you should understand that these are not normal modes that should not be used when driving). If there is friction of the chain on the frame in these positions or a fuzzy speed change, then you should adjust the cable tension by rotating the adjustment on the front override switch. In case of problems when switching from a smaller star to a larger one, you should pull the cable (turn the adjustment counterclockwise), and when it is not possible to switch from the larger to the smaller one, loosen it (turn the adjustment clockwise). If there are no comments on the work, then the next test must be carried out under load when driving on roads.
- We find a flat section of the road (without hillocks and descents) and check the operation of the front throw when driving. In case of any problems when switching, right on the go we turn the adjustment on the lever in the direction we need.
If something became unclear to you on how to set up the front gearshift, we recommend that you watch a video on this topic.
Why can’t I adjust the front gearshift
If you have several times failed to clearly configure the front derailleur of your bike, then most likely you have one of the problems listed below.
- Incorrectly selected switch or star system.
- The switch is deformed or out of order.
- Tight rope in a shirt.
- The shifter failed.
- Strongly stretched chain.
- The switch, cable and chain are heavily contaminated.