Each of us at home has some kind of electrical appliance that has been working in the house for more than one year. But over time, the power of technology weakens and does not fulfill its intended purposes. It is then worth paying attention to the insides of the equipment. Mostly problems arise with the electric motor, which is responsible for the functionality of the technique. Then you should pay attention to the device that regulates the engine speed without reducing their power.
Types of engines
Engines are different in characteristics. This means that this or that technique works at different frequencies of revolution of the shaft that starts the mechanism. Motor may be:
Basically, three-phase electric motors are found in factories or large factories. At home, single-phase and two-phase are used. This electricity is enough for household appliances.
Power speed controller
A 220 V motor speed controller without loss of power is used to maintain the initial preset shaft speed. This is one of the basic principles of this device, which is called the frequency regulator.
With it, the appliance operates at the set engine speed and does not reduce it. Also, the engine speed controller affects the cooling and ventilation of the motor. With the help of power, a speed is set that can be either raised or lowered.
The question of how to reduce the speed of a 220 V electric motor was asked by many people. But this procedure is quite simple. It is only necessary to change the frequency of the supply voltage, which will significantly reduce the performance of the motor shaft. You can also change the power of the engine, while engaging its coils. Electricity control is closely related to the magnetic field and motor slip. For such actions, they mainly use an autotransformer, household regulators that reduce the speed of this mechanism. But it is also worth remembering that engine power will decrease.
Engines are divided into:
The speed controller of the asynchronous electric motor depends on the current connected to the mechanism. The essence of the asynchronous motor depends on the magnetic coils through which the frame passes. She pivots on sliding contacts. And when turning it turns around 180 degrees, then through these contacts the connection will flow in the opposite direction. Thus, the rotation will remain unchanged. But with this action, the desired effect will not be obtained. It will come into force after a couple of dozen frames of this type are introduced into the mechanism.
The commutator motor is used very often.. Its work is simple, as the transmitted current passes directly. because of this, the power of the electric motor revolutions is not lost, and the mechanism consumes less electricity.
The washing machine motor also needs to be adjusted for power. For this, special boards were made that cope with their work: the board for adjusting the engine speed from the washing machine carries multifunctional use, since when it is used, the voltage decreases, but the rotation power is not lost.
The circuit of this board is checked. One has only to put the bridges from the diodes, choosing an optocoupler for the LED. In this case, you still need to put the triac on the radiator. Basically, engine adjustment starts at 1000 rpm.
If the power regulator is not satisfied and its functionality is not enough, you can make or improve the mechanism. For this, it is necessary to take into account the current strength, which should not exceed 70 A, and the heat transfer during use. Therefore, an ammeter can be installed to adjust the circuit. The frequency will be small and will be determined by capacitor C2.
Next, you should configure the regulator and its frequency. Upon exit, this pulse will exit through a push-pull transistor amplifier. You can also make 2 resistors that will serve as an output for the computer’s cooling system. In order for the circuit to not burn out, a special blocker is required, which will serve as a doubled current value. So this mechanism will work for a long time and in the right amount. Power control devices provide your appliance with many years of service at no extra cost.
Video: Drill Speed Regulator Without Power Loss
Schematic diagrams, connection of devices and pinout of connectors
A high-quality and reliable speed controller for single-phase collector motors can be done on common parts in just 1 evening. This circuit has an integrated overload detection module, provides a soft start of the controlled engine and a motor speed stabilizer. Such a unit works with a voltage of both 220 and 110 volts.
Regulator Technical Parameters
- supply voltage: 230 volts of alternating current
- regulation range: 5. 99%
- load voltage: 230 V / 12 A (2.5 kW with a radiator)
- maximum power without radiator 300 W
- low noise
- speed stabilization
- soft start
- board dimensions: 50 × 60 mm
The circuit of the control system module is based on a PWM pulse generator and a motor control triac. a classic circuitry for such devices. Elements D1 and R1 provide a limitation of the magnitude of the supply voltage to a value safe for powering the generator chip. Capacitor C1 is responsible for filtering the supply voltage. Elements R3, R5 and P1 are a voltage divider with the possibility of its regulation, which is used to set the amount of power supplied to the load. Thanks to the use of resistor R2, which is directly included in the input circuit at the m / s phase, the indoor units are synchronized with the VT139 triac.
The following figure shows the arrangement of elements on a printed circuit board. During installation and start-up, attention should be paid to ensuring safe working conditions. the regulator is powered by a 220V network and its elements are directly connected to the phase.
Regulator power increase
In the test version, the BT138 / 800 triac was used with a maximum current of 12 A, which makes it possible to control the load of more than 2 kW. If it is necessary to control even larger load currents, we recommend installing the thyristor outside the board on a large radiator. Also, remember to choose the right FUSE fuse according to the load.
In addition to controlling the speed of electric motors, you can use the circuit to adjust the brightness of the lamps without any alterations.
Scheme speed control drill
The figure below shows the scheme speed control electric drill motor, assembled in the form of a separate outdoor unit and suitable for all drills with a power of up to 1.8 kW, also for other similar devices that use an AC collector motor, for example, in angle grinders. The regulator details in the diagram are selected for a typical drill with a power of about 270 W, 650 rpm, voltage 220V.
The thyristor type KU202N with the intention of its usual cooling is mounted on a radiator. To set a suitable motor speed, the regulator cord is connected to a 220 V power outlet, and drill include already there. Then, moving the handle of variable resistance R set the required speed for an old drill.
The presented scheme is quite ordinary for repetition even by a beginner amateur radio amateur. Components and parts needed for assembly are cheap and simply available. It is recommended to assemble the structure in a separate box with a socket. Such a device can be used as a carry with a typical power regulator
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The mechanism of operation of this amateur amateur homemade is subsequent, when the load is small, then the current flows small, as soon as the load grows, the speed gradually increases.
FREQUENCY /REGULATOR SPEEDS WITHOUT LOSS OF POWER
chastotnik, in order to increase and decrease revolutions, no power loss. WANT THE SAME? BUY DIRECTLY.
Speed control for drills, angle grinder, electric planer, etc.
Speed control for drill which I about Bosch was a little more than a dollar.
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The LM317 microassembly needs to be installed on a radiator. Diodes 1N4007 can be replaced by similar ones rated for a current of at least 1A. The circuit board is made on one-sided fiberglass. Resistance R5 with a power not lower than 2W, or wire.
A 12V power supply should have a small current margin. By resistor R1 we set the necessary idle speed. Resistance R2 is necessary to set the sensitivity with respect to the load, they set the required moment of increasing the number of revolutions of the microdrills. If you increase the capacity of C4, then increases the delay time of high speeds.
The diagram below allows you to assemble a very simple, cheap and useful speed controller for a 12-volt microdriller for drilling holes in printed circuit boards in amateur radio practice.
Micro assembly LM555 is used as a pulse width modulator. The PWM supply voltage is reduced and stabilized using the LM7805 chip). The precision tuning resistor P1 at 50 kOhm allows you to adjust the speed of rotation of the drill. The IRL530N field effect transistor is used as an output drive element and can switch current up to 27A. In addition, it has fast switching times and low resistance. Diode 1N4007 is needed to protect against EMF counteraction. Alternatively, you can take the Schottky diode MBR1645.
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) used in this design is an effective method of changing speed and power for all DC motors.
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